Raw & Manufactured Materials: 2018 Overview
The production of many key raw materials has declined recently, while others are finding opportunities through new production processes and applications.
Welcome to our annual look at key raw and manufactured materials used in the ceramic, glass, refractories, brick, and related industries. The production of many key raw materials has declined, while others are finding opportunities through new production processes and applications. Here you’ll find production and import/export information, as well as details regarding applications and future trends.
China was the world’s leading producer of abrasive fused aluminum oxide (alumina) and abrasive silicon carbide in 2016, with producers operating at near capacity. U.S. imports, particularly those from China where operating costs were lower, continued to challenge abrasives producers in the U.S. and Canada. Production of crude fused alumina was flat at 10,000 t for the year and had an estimated value of $1.92 million. Also flat for 2016, silicon carbide production remained at 35,000 t and was valued at about $26.4 million. Foreign competition, again particularly from China, is expected to persist and continue to limit production in North America.
Imports for consumption of fused alumina were down by 4.3% in 2016, to 157,000 t; exports also dropped, by 2% to 14,700 t. Leading import sources for crude fused alumina from 2012-2015 included: China, 84%; Canada, 7%; Venezuela, 5%; and other, 4%. Silicon carbide imports for consumption declined more drastically, by 16.5% to 116,000 t, while exports plummeted 61.5% to 7,580 t. Crude silicon carbide was imported (2012-2015) from: China, 71%; South Africa, 14%; the Netherlands, 9%; Romania, 4%; and other, 2%. Apparent domestic consumption of fused alumina dropped 4.7% to 142,000 t, while consumption of silicon carbide declined by 7.1% to 143,000 t.
One firm in Ohio and one in Pennsylvania accounted for all of the domestic production of industrial diamond in 2016, which was estimated to be 125 million carats valued at $123 million. At least nine companies produced polycrystalline diamond from diamond powder, and three companies recovered used industrial diamond as one of their principal operations.
China was the leading worldwide producer of synthetic industrial diamond in 2016, with production exceeding 4 billion carats. The U.S. is likely to continue to be one of the world’s leading markets for industrial diamond into the next decade, and it will likely remain a significant producer and exporter of synthetic industrial diamond as well.
Apparent domestic consumption of industrial diamond jumped 70.6% to reach 406 million carats; imports for consumption increased by 49.8% to 412 million carats. Exports declined, however, by 18.6% to 114 million carats.
Bauxite and Alumina
Four domestic Bayer-process refineries had a combined alumina production capacity of 5.6 Mt per year but produced just 2.5 Mt in 2016; two of the refineries shut down during the year. About 70% of the alumina produced went to primary aluminum smelters; the remainder went to nonmetallurgical products such as abrasives, ceramics, chemicals and refractories. Global alumina production decreased slightly in 2016, to 118 Mt from 2015’s 119 Mt (see Table 1). Domestic alumina imports for consumption, exports and apparent consumption were all down significantly in 2016, by 23.6% (to 1.2 Mt), 31.2% (to 1.5 Mt), and 39.7% (to 2.4 Mt), respectively.
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|World total (rounded)||118,000||262,000|
*estimated W=withheld (Source: U.S. Geological Survey, www.usgs.gov.)
The global activated alumina market is expected to reach $1.3 billion by 2025, growing at a compound annual growth rate (CAGR) of 5.4%, according to Grand View Research, Inc. Key end-use industries include water treatment, oil and gas, and medical.1
Persistence Market Research reports that global consumption of high-purity alumina reached 24,700 t in 2016. The value of the market was estimated at $1 million by the end of 2017 and is projected to grow at a CAGR of 12.6% to reach $2.7 million by the end of 2025. In terms of volume, the market is projected to increase by a CAGR of 16.5% during the forecast period. High-purity alumina is a low-volume, high-value product that serves as a base material for the manufacture of sapphire substrates used in LEDs, scratch-resistant artificial sapphire glass and semiconductor wafers, among others. Robust growth for smaller applications, such as lithium-ion batteries, is also expected.2
The refractories industry represents one of the primary growth opportunities for the worldwide tabular alumina market, according to Technavio. The market is projected to expand at a CAGR of more than 7% by 2021. Vendors in the tabular alumina market are entering into consolidations and focusing on partnerships with end users to offer specialized products. Asia-Pacific is seen as a region that will offer high growth potential due to increasing manufacturing and industrialization activities in the oil and gas, refractories, and abrasives industries in India, China, and Japan. Market growth in the region will also benefit from economic development and growth in building and construction activities in China.3
Domestic consumption of bauxite declined by 28% in 2016 to 6.8 Mt, valued at $231 million. More than 90% of the bauxite was converted to alumina; the remainder went to nonmetallurgical products such as abrasives, chemicals, proppants and refractories. Domestic bauxite imports for consumption dropped dramatically (44.2%) to 6.3 Mt, while exports doubled to 40,000 t. Global bauxite production declined by 11% in 2016, primarily due to Malaysia’s reduction of 34 Mt (production was banned pending stricter environmental laws).
According to Merchant Research and Consulting, Ltd., the largest economically suitable deposits of boron minerals are found in the Mohave Desert (U.S.), the Alpide belt (southern Asia) and the Andean belt (South America). Asia and Latin America are forecast to drive demand in the near future, particularly in applications related to agriculture, ceramics and glass.4
Colemanite, kernite, tincal and ulexite make up 90% of the borate minerals used by industry worldwide. More than 75% of world consumption is used in ceramics, detergents, fertilizers and glass. Leading domestic users in 2016 remained the glass and ceramic industry, accounting for an estimated 80% of total borates consumption. Boron was also used as a component in abrasives, cleaning products, insecticides, and insulation, and in the production of semiconductors.
Two firms in southern California produced borates in 2016; most of the boron products consumed in the U.S. were manufactured domestically. The leading producer mined borate ores containing kernite, tincal and ulexite, while the second company produced borates from brines extracted through solution mining techniques. (Specific domestic production and consumption data for boron were withheld to avoid disclosing proprietary company information.)
U.S. imports for consumption in 2016 included: refined borax, 181,000 t (up 33.1%); boric acid, 43,000 t (up 7.5%); colemanite (calcium borates), 36,000 t (up 2.9%); and ulexite (sodium borates), 61,000 t (down 12.9%). Primary import sources (2012-2015) were: Turkey, 73%; Bolivia, 13%; Chile, 4%; Argentina, 2%; and other, 8%.
Exports of boric acid in 2016 climbed 16.7% to 231,000 t, while refined borax exports grew 11.9% to 554,000 t. Canada, China, India, Malaysia and the Netherlands imported the largest quantities of refined borates from the U.S. in 2016.
Analysts at Technavio predict that the global hexagonal boron nitride market will expand at a CAGR of more than 5% to 2021, with increasing demand from the electronics and metallurgy industries driving growth. R&D advancements in semiconductors, aerospace applications, piezoelectric devices and cosmetics have targeted hexagonal boron nitride for potential applications.5
Total production (sold or used) of U.S. clay increased slightly (1.2%) in 2016 to an estimated 25.7 Mt valued at $1.43 billion (see Table 2). Increases in construction spending and housing starts led to 5% growth for common clay sales, but bentonite sales declined by 6% due to decreased domestic oil drilling activity. Lower kaolin production was likely a result of declining sales to paper markets, as well as reduced demand for ceramic proppants used by the oil and gas industry.
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*estimated (Source: U.S. Geological Survey, www.usgs.gov.)
Apparent domestic consumption of clays increased 6.8% to 23.4 Mt. Principle uses for specific clays were estimated to be:
- Ball clay—41% floor and wall tile, and 21% sanitaryware
- Bentonite—38% pet waste absorbents, 31% drilling mud, and 21% foundry sand and iron ore pelletizing
- Common clay—40% brick, 32% cement, and 22% lightweight aggregate
- Fire clay—62% refractory products and miscellaneous uses, and 38% heavy clay products
- Fuller’s earth—67% pet waste absorbents
- Kaolin*—43% paper coating and filling, 19% ceramics, and 8% refractories
According to a report available from Research and Markets, the global market for bentonite is projected to reach $1.9 billion by 2024, with growth resulting from increasing demand in foundry sand and water treatment applications. The market in Latin America was valued at over $110 million in 2015 and is expected to witness significant growth due to rising infrastructure development in the region.6
Technavio reports that the global bentonite market is anticipated to grow at a CAGR of more than 2% from 2017-2021. Increasing consumption of bentonite for drilling purposes in the oil and gas industry will help fuel growth.7
In addition to the paper industry, growth in the construction market will help drive growth for the global kaolin market, according to Technavio. Demand for kaolin is increasing along with the rising need for ceramics such as sanitaryware and tile.8 Merchant Research reports that Uzbekistan is the largest producer of crude kaolin, while Asia-Pacific is the largest consuming region. Merchant expects market growth to be driven by demand from developing countries such as China, India and Malaysia.9
U.S. imports of clays for consumption declined by 15.5% to 432,000 t in 2016 and included: artificially activated clays and earths, up 12.5% to 27,000 t; kaolin, down 17.1% to 353,000 t; and other, down 14.8% to 52,000 t. Exports dropped dramatically across the board (down 30.5% total to about 2.8 Mt) and included: ball clay, down 37.5% to 30,000 t; bentonite, down 36% to 600,000 t; clays not otherwise classified, down 29.1% to 190,000 t; fire clay (includes refractory-grade kaolin**), down 37.8% to 135,000 t; fuller’s earth, down 15.6% to 65,000 t; and kaolin, down 28.1% to 1.7 Mt.
Roskill Information Services reports that world fluorspar demand is dominated by the chemical industry, and this is expected to continue through 2021. Consumption will also be driven by the steel and aluminum industries. China continues to account for about 50% of world fluorspar production. Sudden mine closures, particularly in southeastern China, were prompted by environmental inspections and coincided with a time of lower seasonal production levels due to traditional winter production cuts.10
Prolonged adverse market conditions have affected numerous mining projects worldwide. Mine production in 2016 dropped about 4% to 6.4 Mt. However, one project in Canada began mine construction in 2016, and mining was anticipated to begin in 2017.
Minimal fluorspar was produced in the U.S. in 2016; apparent consumption, which was satisfied by imports and small amounts of byproduct synthetic fluorspar, declined by 2.4% to 401,000 t. Production of hydrofluoric acid was by far the leading use for acid-grade fluorspar. It was also used in cement production, enamels, as a flux in steelmaking, glass manufacture, iron and steel casting, and welding rod coatings.
U.S. exports of fluor-spar declined by 7.1% to 13,000 t in 2016, while imports (of acid- and metallurgical-grade fluor-spar) dropped 7.4% to 404,000 t. In addition, cryolite imports were down 15.8% to 16,000 t.
According to a report available from Research and Markets, the global graphite market (natural and synthetic) reached $12.5 billion in 2016 and is projected to hit $18.2 billion in 2021, climbing at a CAGR of 7.7%. The refractories and metallurgy markets make use of the high temperature stability of graphite, while electrical applications tap into the high electrical conductivity of purer grades, and technical markets make use of graphite’s strength, lubrication, and radiation.11
North America produced only 4% of the world’s graphite supply in 2016, with production in Canada and Mexico; total worldwide production was essentially flat at 1.2 Mt for the year. U.S. exports of natural graphite climbed 25% in 2016, to 15,000 t. Declining by 17% to 39,000 t, imports for consumption included flake and high purity (70%), amorphous (29%), and lump and chip graphite (1%).
Apparent domestic consumption of natural graphite in 2016 dropped by 31.4% to 24,000 t. Major uses included brake linings, foundry operations, lubricants, refractories and steelmaking. A significant opportunity for graphite lies with Tesla’s Gigafactory, where the carmaker manufactures lithium-ion electric vehicle batteries. When the plant is complete (projected for 2020, but the project is ahead of schedule), it will require 93,000 t of flake graphite to produce 35,200 t of spherical graphite for use as anode material for the batteries.
Advances in thermal technology and acid leaching techniques that enable the production of higher purity graphite powders are likely to lead development of new applications for graphite in high-technology fields. Such innovative refining techniques have enabled the use of improved graphite in carbon-graphite composites, electronics, foils, friction materials, and specialty lubricant applications. Flexible graphite product lines, such as graphoil (a thin graphite cloth), are likely to be the fastest-growing market. In addition, large-scale fuel cell applications are being developed that could consume as much graphite as all other uses combined.
Seawater and natural brines accounted for about 67% of U.S. magnesium compound production in 2016, which increased by 2.6% to 390,000 t valued at $195 million. Exports declined by 14.3% to 60,000 t, while imports for consumption were down 13.9% to 500,000 t.
Apparent domestic consumption of magnesium compounds in 2016 dipped by 6.8% to 830,000 t. About 60% of the magnesium compounds consumed in the U.S. were used in agricultural, chemical, construction, environmental, and industrial applications in the form of caustic-calcined magnesia, magnesium chloride, magnesium hydroxide, and magnesium sulfates. The remaining 40% was used for refractories in the form of dead-burned magnesia, fused magnesia and olivine.
According to Technavio, the global market for magnesium oxide nanoparticles will grow at a CAGR of close to 8% to 2021. They are preferred over traditional organic chemicals such as phosphorus or halogen flame retardants because only a small amount of magnesium oxide nanoparticles is required for any application. They are also extensively used as reinforcement in the matrix of composites due to their refractoriness, high compressive strength and wear resistance. In addition, magnesium oxide nanoparticles are projected to find growth opportunities in the steel, cement, coatings, and electronics industries in emerging markets of China, India, and Japan.12
The suspension of U.S. mining in 2015 resulted in a significant decline in exports for rare earth compounds in 2016 (down 86.7% to 660 t from 2015’s 4,971 t). Imports of rare earth compounds and metals increased 27.4% to 12,660 t valued at $120 million. Estimated consumption dipped by 5.9% to 16,000 t in 2016; estimated distribution by end use was: catalysts, 55%; metallurgical applications and alloys, 15%; ceramics and glass, 10%; polishing, 10%; and other, 10%.
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|World total (rounded)||130,000||126,000||-3.1|
*estimated **does not include undocumented production †estimated based on Chinese imports (Source: U.S. Geological Survey, www.usgs.gov.)
The global rare earth metals market is projected to grow at a CAGR of over 9% from 2017-2021, according to Technavio, with one of the primary drivers for growth being increased demand for hybrid electric vehicles. NiMH batteries, which are powerful, light and take up less space compared to conventional lead and lithium batteries, are used for hybrid electric vehicles. With the increased use of rare earth metals in NiMH batteries, the rising demand for hybrid electric vehicles will drive growth in the market. The light rare earth elements segment dominated the rare earth metals market in 2016, and this trend is expected to continue during the forecast period. The major contributor to the segment’s growth is the increasing consumption of elements such as lanthanum, cerium, praseodymium, samarium, and neodymium in applications such as permanent magnets, catalytic converters, polishing powder, alloys, and car batteries.13
According to Grand View Research, the global market for cerium oxide nanoparticles is expected to exceed $1 billion by 2025. Strong demand from sectors such as construction and automotive, along with increasing research and technological advancements, will benefit the market. Energy storage applications, which dominated in 2016, are projected to grow at a CAGR of 14.7% from 2017-2025 to reach $359 million. In addition, cerium oxide nanoparticles are widely used as catalyst converters and fuel additives that enable the reduction of burnout time, ignition time and peak temperature in the automotive industry. These advantages, coupled with the growth of the automotive industry, are expected to favor market growth over the next eight years.14
Industrial sand and gravel valued at about $4.3 billion was produced by 254 companies from 347 operations in 35 U.S. states in 2016. Total U.S. production dropped 11% to 91.7 Mt. Combined production from Wisconsin, Illinois, Texas, Missouri, Minnesota, North Carolina, Michigan, Oklahoma, Louisiana and Arkansas accounted for 82% of total domestic production.
Apparent domestic consumption of silica declined by 10.1% to 89.4 Mt in 2016. About 72% of U.S. tonnage was used as hydraulic fracturing sand and well-packing and cementing sand; 8% as other whole-grain silica; 7% as glassmaking sand; 4% as foundry sand; 1% each as whole-grain fillers and building products, other ground silica, and ground and unground sand for chemicals; and 6% for other uses.
U.S. imports for consumption dipped by 3.4% to 280,000 t in 2016. Imports of silica are generally of two types: small shipments of very high-purity silica, or a few large shipments of lower-grade silica shipped only under special circumstances (e.g., low freight rates). Leading import sources (2012-2015) include: Canada, 86%; Mexico, 6%, and other, 8%. Although the U.S. is a net exporter of silica, exports decreased by 32.4% to 2.6 Mt in 2016.
Technavio predicts that the global nanosilica market will grow at a CAGR of close to 8% from 2017-2021. The growing demand for nanocoatings is one of the primary growth factors for nanosilica, which can impart larger surface area and better performance for applications in the household, healthcare, and automotive industries. As nanocoatings are also finding increased use in the construction industry in emerging economies such as India and China, nanosilica is projected to see increasing demand in the Asia-Pacific region.15 According to Grand View Research, the global nanosilica market will reach $5.14 billion by 2025.16
Talc and Pyrophyllite
Three companies operated five talc-producing mines in three U.S. states in 2016. Domestic production of crude talc was estimated to have decreased by 3.9% to 660,000 t valued at $19.1 million. Montana was the leading producer state, followed by Texas and Vermont.
Total sales of talc by U.S. producers declined slightly (1.3%) to 545,000 t valued at $97.5 million in 2016. Apparent consumption increased 3.4% to reach 830,000 t. Talc produced and sold in the U.S. was used in: ceramics (including automotive catalytic converters), 26%; paper, 18%; paint, 17%; plastics, 12%; roofing, 7%; rubber, 4%; cosmetics, 3%; and other, 13%.
U.S. talc imports for consumption jumped 19.6% in 2016, to 385,000 t. Principal import sources in 2016 included: China, 35%; Pakistan, 34%; and Canada, 26%. Imports from China and Pakistan increased by 42% and 15%, respectively, relative to 2015; imports originating in China were nearly 250% higher than those of 2014. Including imported talc, U.S. end-use rankings were estimated to be (in decreasing order by tonnage): plastics, ceramics, paint, paper, roofing, cosmetics, and other.
Domestic talc exports increased 4.4% to 215,000 t in 2016. Canada and Mexico continued to be the primary destinations for U.S. talc shipments, collectively receiving nearly 70% of exports.
According to Technavio, the global talc market is predicted to grow at a CAGR of over 4% from 2017-2021. Increasing demand from the plastics industry is one of the major factors driving growth for the talc market. One trend gaining traction is the increasing popularity of micronized and other superfine-grade talc products, which find extensive application in personal care and pharmaceutical products, as well as some food applications. Talc carbonate is one of the fastest-growing segments of the global talc market, and this trend is expected to continue.17
Merchant Research reports that China is the leading worldwide producer of talc, followed by India and the U.S. Emerging countries are expected to show high demand to 2027, driven by applications in the plastics, coatings, food processing and ceramic industries.18
One company in North Carolina mined and processed pyrophyllite in 2016. Domestic data was withheld to protect proprietary data but was estimated to have increased from that of 2015. Pyrophyllite was sold for refractory, paint and ceramic products. According to Merchant Research, the Republic of Korea is the leading producer of pyrophyllite, followed by Brazil and Japan. The market is expected to grow due to increasing applications in the ceramic and refractories industry.18
Titanium and Related Materials
Titanium minerals or titaniferous (TiO2-containing) feedstocks are principally driven by demand for titanium dioxide (TiO2) pigment, which finds application in paint, plastics, paper and inks, among others. In 2015, the TiO2 pigment market accounted for 83% of worldwide titanium mineral demand; other end uses include titanium metal, abrasives, welding rods and metallurgical fluxes. The five largest titanium minerals suppliers control nearly half of all global feedstock production.19
The global TiO2 market is expected to reach $28.5 billion by 2025, according to Grand View Research. Increasing applications in the automotive and photovoltaics industries are expected to drive growth, along with paints and coatings. In addition, growing awareness among consumers in emerging economies regarding personal hygiene and care has led to considerable growth for the cosmetics industry. Increasing consumption of TiO2 as a UV filter and whitening agent is therefore expected to help drive growth.20
U.S. production of TiO2 pigment dipped slightly (1.6%) to 1.2 Mt in 2016 valued at $2.6 billion. Apparent consumption was down 2.7% to 771,000 t; end-use distribution included: paints (including lacquers and varnishes), 60%; plastics, 28%; paper, 5%; and other, 7%. Other uses included catalysts, ceramics, coated fabrics and textiles, floor coverings, printing ink, and roofing granules. Imports for consumption and exports both increased in 2016, to 235,000 t (6.3%) and 664,000 t (2.5%), respectively.
The estimated value of titanium mineral concentrates consumed in the U.S. in 2016 was $560 million; estimated consumption was down 11.6% to 1.1 Mt. About 90% of the titanium mineral concentrates were consumed by domestic TiO2 pigment producers, while the remaining 10% was used in welding rod coatings and for the manufacture of carbides, chemicals, and metals. While imports for consumption dipped 4% to 970,000 t, exports skyrocketed 300% to 4,000 t.
Merchant Research reports that the leading producers of ilmenite are South Africa and Australia. Australia also leads in rutile mining, with a 62% market share, and holds 60% of rutile reserves, followed by South Africa (18%) and India (16%). (Ilmenite and rutile represent important sources of titanium.)21
The global zinc oxide market is expected to grow steadily at a CAGR of around 4% to 2021, according to Technavio. The market is experiencing high growth in developing economies such as China, India, Russia, Brazil and Indonesia. Numerous OEMs are shifting manufacturing facilities to these countries due to factors such as cheap labor, land availability, low transportation costs, and less stringent government regulations. The Asia-Pacific region is expected to be the major revenue contributor for 2017-2021.
Technavio reports that key end-use industries for zinc oxide include automotive, construction and chemicals. Diversified applications such as electronics and photonics, fungicides, transparent resistors, light-emitting diodes, solar cells, and memory devices will also provide opportunities. Increasing demand for zinc oxide from the semiconductor and fertilizer sub-segments is projected to drive growth in the Asia-Pacific region, particularly in countries such as India, Japan, and Thailand.22
Zirconium Compounds and Related Minerals
In 2016, two companies recovered zircon (zirconium silicate) from surface mining operations in Florida and Georgia as a co-product from the mining and processing of titanium and zirconium mineral concentrates. Domestic production decreased significantly because operations ceased at two mines in Virginia, where reserves were exhausted in 2015 (specific details were withheld to avoid disclosing proprietary company data).
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|World total (rounded, excludes U.S.)||1,440||1,460||1.4|
*estimated (Source: U.S. Geological Survey, www.usgs.gov.)
U.S. imports of zirconium ores and concentrates increased by 54.6% to 32,000 t as consumers adjusted to the decrease in domestic zircon production. Apparent consumption data were withheld, but ceramics, foundry sand, opacifiers and refractories are the leading end uses for zircon. Others include abrasives, chemicals, metal alloys and welding rod coatings. Exports of zirconium ores and concentrates declined by 19.1% to 3,300 t.
World mine production of zirconium mineral concentrates increased slightly (1.4%) in 2016 to almost 1.5 Mt, excluding U.S. production (see Table 4). Several new projects experienced their first full year of production. In late 2015, production began at the Fairbreeze Mine in South Africa and at the Keysbrook Mine in Western Australia; production was projected to be 55,000 t and 29,000 t per year, respectively.
In New South Wales, Australia, construction of the Dubbo Zirconia Project (DZP) was expected to start in late 2016; production is anticipated to start in 2018. The facility was projected to produce zirconium carbonate (equivalent to 16,300 t per year of ZrO2) and more than 200 t of hafnium oxide (HfO2), as well as niobium, rare earth, and tantalum products. Refinement of HfO2 into hafnium metal at DZP would be independent of the nuclear industry, where it is produced as a byproduct of zirconium metal refinement. Additional heavy mineral exploration and mining projects are under way in Australia, Madagascar, Mozambique, Sri Lanka, and Tanzania.
Editor’s note: The foregoing information, except where noted, was compiled from the U.S. Geological Survey (www.usgs.gov). All units are in metric tons (t) or million metric tons (Mt), unless otherwise noted. In most cases, 2016 data were the latest available (and often estimated).
1. “Activated Alumina Market Worth $1.32 Billion by 2025,” Grand View Research, Inc., September 2017, www.grandviewresearch.com.
2. “Global High Purity Alumina (HPA) Market,” Persistence Market Research, October 2017, www.persistencemarketresearch.com.
3. “Global Tabular Alumina Market, 2017-2021,” Technavio, August 2017, www.technavio.com.
4. “Boron Minerals: 2017 World Market Review and Forecast to 2027,” Merchant Research and Consulting, Ltd., September 2017, https://mcgroup.co.uk.
5. “Global Hexagonal Boron Nitride Market,” Technavio, July 2017, www.technavio.com.
6. “Bentonite Market Analysis by Product, Application, Region and Segment Forecasts, 2013-2024,” Research and Markets, December 2016, www.researchandmarkets.com.
7. “Global Bentonite Market, 2017-2021,” Technavio, January 2017, www.technavio.com.
8. “Global Kaolin Market, 2017-2021,” Technavio, November 2017, www.technavio.com.
9. “Kaolin: 2017 World Market Review and Forecast to 2027,” Merchant Research and Consulting, Ltd., September 2017, https://mcgroup.co.uk.
10. “Fluorspar: Global Industry, Markets & Outlook,” Roskill Information Services, September 2017, https://roskill.com.
11. “Graphite: Technologies and Global Markets,” Research and Markets, September 2017, www.researchandmarkets.com.
12. “Global Magnesium Oxide Nanoparticle Market, 2017-2021,” Technavio, October 2017, www.technavio.com.
13. “Global Rare Earth Metals Market, 2017-2021,” Technavio, April 2017, www.technavio.com.
14. “Cerium Oxide Nanoparticles Market Size Worth $1.04 Billion By 2025,” Grand View Research, Inc., August 2017, www.grandviewresearch.com.
15. “Global Nanosilica Market,” Technavio, November 2017, www.technavio.com.
16. “Nanosilica Market Size Worth $5.14 Billion By 2025,” Grand View Research, Inc., April 2017, www.grandviewresearch.com.
17. “Global Talc Market, 2017-2021,” Technavio, February 2017, www.technavio.com.
18. “Talc and Pyrophyllite: 2017 World Market Review and Forecast to 2027,” Merchant Research and Consulting, Ltd., September 2017, https://mcgroup.co.uk.
19. “Titanium Minerals: Global Industry Markets and Outlook,” Roskill Information Services, December 2016, https://roskill.com.
20. “Titanium Dioxide Market Size Worth $28.5 Billion by 2025,” Grand View Research, Inc., November 2017, www.grandviewresearch.com.
21. “Titanium Mineral Concentrates (Ilmenite and Rutile): 2017 World Market Review and Forecast to 2027,” Merchant Research and Consulting, Ltd., September 2017, https://mcgroup.co.uk.
22. “Global Zinc Oxide Market, 2017-2021,” Technavio, July 2017, www.technavio.com.
Click here to view the 2017 Materials Overview.